It is now well established in the literature that factors like poor sleep (Schuh-Hofer et al. 2013), negative expectations (Bingel et al. 2011; Kessner et al. 2014), worry, anxiety, depression (Ligthart et al. 2013; 2014), fear (Crombez et al. 2012) , stress (Chen et al. 2011; Fagundes et al. 2013; Scott et al. 2013) and negative beliefs about the injury (Wiech et al. 2008; Wertli et al. 2014) all have the capacity to amplify the danger messages. Therefore the brain is alerted to more “danger” than there actually is and the pain response may not reflect the degree of tissue injury.
- Running Physio.